May 8- May 12

May 8 (Monday)- Work day 

May 9 (Tuesday)- Continued presentations 

May 10 (Wednesday)- No school 

May 11 (Thursday)- Work day 

May 12 (Friday)- Continued presentations

Aftermath of Mobutu 

  • Tutsi and anti Mobutu rebels capture Kinshasa 
  • Zaire is the Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Laurent Kabila installed as president 
  • Rebels from Uganda and Rwanda fight against Kabila 
  • East DRC is taken over 
  • Angolese and Zimbabwe helps 

Lusaka Peace Accord Signed 

  • African countries sign ceasefire accord in Lusaka. MLC and RCD sign as well 
  • UN Peace Council authorizes 5,500 UN forces to monitor ceasefire 
  • Fighting still continues 

Congo Today 

  • Poaching 
  • Ivory 
  • Famine/Diseases 
  • Military control


  • Basic Facts 
  • 5th largest country in the world 
  • Largest country in South America 
  • Population: 207.8 
  • Capital: Brasilia 
  • Government: Federal presidential constitutional republic 
  • President: Michel Temer 
  • Official Language; Portuguese 
  • Major Cities: Sao Paulo, Rio De Janeiro, Salvador, Fortaleza 

Events that shaped Brazil 

1. The Portuguese arrive in Brazil 

  • Cabral was sponsored by King of Portugal 
  • 1500 
  • Spotted land 
  • Sailed North for 3 days 
  • Stayed for 8 days 

2. Brazil breaks ties with Portugal 

  • Portugal requested King Don Joao VI return to Portugal from Brazil 
  • King left Brazil in the hands of his son 
  • General Jorge Avilez forced Dom Pedro to banish some of his most loyal men 
  • Leaders in Portugal stripped Pedro of his powers, making him nothing more than the governor of Rio de Janeiro 
  • Brazilians were outraged at this 
  • Portugal leaders continued to humiliate Dom Pedro and his loyalty soon shifted to the Brazilians 
  • Dom Pedro banished Jorge and pledged his loyalty to Brazil 
  • He soon broke all ties with Portugal and ordered Brazilians to remove their blue and white armbands (symbolized Portugal) 

  • The official breaking of ties occurred when Dom wrote a letter to his father
  • Soon after, Prince Pedro was named Constitutional Emperor and Perpetul Defender of Brazil 

  • Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca led the group that proclaimed the BraZilian republic overthrowing the Empire of Brazil and ending the reign of Pedro II 

3. Getulio Vargas is elected 

  • "Father of the Poor" 
  • Served as president 1930-1945 and 1951- 1954 
  • Modernized the country- Social and economically 
  • Forced to leave 

4. New constitution 

  • Vrgas is overthrown 
  • Gaspar Dutra takes office
  • 1946 Constitution restored several liberties from the 1934 Constitution that were revoked by Vargas 
  • Liberties include 
    • All equal before the law 
    • Women's suffrage 
    • Freedom of expression/association 

5. Capital is moved

  • Rio de Janeiro was overcrowded 
  • Brasilia built in 1961 
  • Rapid growth 

6. Military leaders take control of the government before restoring power back to the people 

  • Due to several political struggles and lack of capable civilian politicians, the military took control of the government 
  • Marshal Humberto Castelo Branco became president without  election  
  • 3 years later, Artur da Costa e Silva was elected 
  • During his presidency 
  • After the death of Costa e Silva, Medici was elected
  • He had several diplomats kidnapped, including the U.S ambassabor 
  • Last of military president, Figueiredo was elected with intent of turning Brazil into a democracy again 
  • After successful presidency he was forced to leave the country for heart surgery 
  • Brazilians took to the streets shouting direct vote

7.  The constituent assembly ensures a wide distribution 

  • Presidential and Federal Republic 
  • Executive Branch
    • President
  • Legislative Branch
  • Chamber of duties  
  • Judicial Branch 
    • Supreme Court
  • Gave power 
    • State 
    • Municipal governments

8. President elected by direct election

  • 1989 
  • Fernando Collor de Mello
  • Economic decline, staggering foreign debt, and hyperinflation worsened 
  • Accused of corruption 
  • Resigned in 1992 

9. Brazil is crowned (soccer)

  1. 1958
  2. 1962 
  3. 1970 
  4. 1994 
  5. 2000 

  • Very popular

10. First woman president 

  • 2010 Dilma Rousseff v. Jose Serra 
  • Sworn in January 1, 2011 
  • Good agenda
    • Maintain economic stability 
    • Eradicate poverty 
    • Political and tax reform 
  • Believed that she was involved in major money scandal and protested

2016 Rio Olympics 

Amazon Rain Forest 


  • Connects North America and South America 


  • Republic of Panama 
  • Capital is Panama city 
  • Population: 3.929 million 
  • It's linking central and south America together


  • Juan Carlos Varela 
  • Since July 1, 2014 

Native Tribes 

  • Kuna 
  • Dakota 
  • Bocas Del Toro 

Panama Canal 

  • Took over 10 years and $400 million check 
  • Roughtly 30,000,000 pounds of exlosives to clear the way for the canal 
  • 48 miles in length 
  • 1914

Why was it Built? 

  • President Theodore Roosevelt wanted a trans=isthmian canal so that the US and other countries to ship goods quicker around Central America 


  • Christopher Columbus sails his 4th voyage across the ocean to Panama 


  • Panama City was destroyed by Henry Morgan 
  • City bounced back quickly 


  • King of Spain by Napoleon 
  • Panama becomes independent of Spain 
  • Joins the confederacy (Colombia, Venezuela, Euador, Peru, and Bolivia 
  • Building of the railway which was 1st transcontinental railway of the New World crossing Isthmus from Colon to Panama city 
  • France tried but failled to build a canal to link the Atlantic with Pacific 
  • France given permit to build a canal across Panama firs they have to come up with a plan


  • Panama splits from Columbia and becomes fully independent 
  • US buys rights to build panama canal 
  • Official opening of the Panama Canal 
  • Panama ceases to be a US protectant 
  • Bridge of the Americas opened 


  • January 1st the control of the Canal passes from USA to Panama by the Torrijos-Carter treaty 

Bridge of the Americas 

  • Spans across Pacific entrance of the Panama Canal 
  • 5,425 feet long 
  • 201 feet above the water with high tide 

Torrinos-Carter Treaty 

  • September 7, 1977 
  • Officially called the Treaty Concerning the Permanent Neutrality and Operation of the Panama Canal 
  • Treaty was guaranteed that Panama would have full control over the Panama Canal by 1999 
  • Treaty was named after President Jimmy Carter and the commander from Panama's national gurd General Omar Torrijos 
  • Finally passed January 1, 2000 

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